The main feature of the Chinese healthcare and life sciences industry is the great financial and economic emphasis hidden behind each sub-sectors (among them, the hospital one), in which China seems to identify important areas for inbound investments. Historically, the hospital sub-sector has been always under the public sphere and ownership. However, since the end of Nineties onwards, China has embraced the privatization path affecting, in last years, strategic sectors such as healthcare, making the Constitutional cornerstone of “improving people's health” (as the ratio of the article 21) a goal with a “more economical” aim. The evolution of the hospital market went through three important period (1949-1979; 1980-2003; 2003 - nowadays) and its evolution has affected by other economic and social variables (such as evolution of insurance schemes; pharmaceutical market, big disparities between urban and rural standard of living, and so on). The contribution attempt to rebuild the slow and hard process of the hospital sector from the Chinese economic socialization era to the opening up.